Mudah Belajar Sains ala Feynman

Mudah Belajar Sains ala Feynman

Mudah Belajar Sains ? Tanya pada dirimu. Kayaknya nggak mudah ya untuk sebagian besar orang. Kepala serasa nggak muat lagi dimasukin berbagai rumus fisika, kimia, nama latin boro-boro bahasa indonesia aja kudu dilurusin. Mungkin boleh rekan-rekan mengikuti cara Feynman di bawah ini.

Richard Feynman adalah ilmuwan fisika yang memenangkan nobel lewat karyanya di bidang elektrodinamika kuantum (quantum electrodynamics) pada tahun 1965. Feynman sangat dikenal kontribusinya di bidang fisika ketika saat itu Ia memperkenalkan silabus baru untuk California Institute of Technology. Institute ini prihatin dengan silabus bagi mahasiswa ilmu fisika yang tidak pernah diperbarui. Materi kuliah berikut rekaman Feynman kemudian dikenal sebagai The Feynman Lectures on Physics dan digunakan secara luas di seluruh dunia sampai dengan saat ini.

Belajar dengan teknik Feynman

Kefasihan Feynman dalam mengajar fisika yang terkenal rumit menggugah banyak pihak untuk mengetahui bagaimana Feynman bisa  mengingat berbagai teori fisika dengan begitu mudahnya.

Feynman dalam salah satu kuliahnya mengungkapkan perbedaan antara mengerti suatu istilah dengan benar-benar memahami lebih dalam melalui sebuah cerita :

“This boy said to me, ‘See that bird standing on the stump there? What’s the name of it?’ I said, ‘I haven’t got the slightest idea.’ He said, ‘It’s a brown-throated thrush. Your father doesn’t teach you much about science.’

I smiled to myself, because my father had already taught me that [the name] doesn’t tell me anything about the bird. He taught me ‘See that bird? It’s a brown-throated thrush, but in Germany it’s called a halsenflugel, and in Chinese they call it a chung ling and even if you know all those names for it, you still know nothing about the bird — you only know something about people; what they call that bird. Now that thrush sings, and teaches its young to fly, and flies so many miles away during the summer across the country, and nobody knows how it finds its way,’ and so forth. There is a difference between the name of the thing and what goes on.

The result of this is that I cannot remember anybody’s name, and when people discuss physics with me they often are exasperated when they say, ‘the Fitz-Cronin effect,’ and I ask, ‘What is the effect?’ and I can’t remember the name.”

There is a first grade science book which, in the first lesson of the first grade, begins in an unfortunate manner to teach science, because it starts off on the wrong idea of what science is. There is a picture of a dog — a windable toy dog — and a hand comes to the winder, and then the dog is able to move. Under the last picture, it says, ‘What makes it move?’ Later on, there is a picture of a real dog and the question, ‘What makes it move?’ Then there is a picture of a motorbike and the question, ‘What makes it move?’ and so on.

I thought at first they were getting ready to tell what science was going to be about — physics, biology, chemistry — but that wasn’t it. The answer was in the teacher’s edition of the book: The answer I was trying to learn is that ‘energy makes it move.’

Now, energy is a very subtle concept. It is very, very difficult to get right. What I meant is that it is not easy to understand energy well enough to use it right, so that you can deduce something correctly using the energy idea — it is beyond the first grade. It would be equally well to say that ‘God makes it move,’ or, ‘Spirit makes it move,’ or, ‘Movability makes it move.’ (In fact, one could equally well say, ‘Energy makes it stop.’)

Look at it this way: That’s only the definition of energy; it should be reversed. We might say when something can move that it has energy in it, but not what makes it move is energy. This is a very subtle difference. It’s the same with this inertia proposition.

Perhaps I can make the difference a little clearer this way: If you ask a child what makes the toy dog move, you should think about what an ordinary human being would answer. The answer is that you wound up the spring; it tries to unwind and pushes the gear around.

What a good way to begin a science course! Take apart the toy; see how it works. See the cleverness of the gears; see the ratchets. Learn something about the toy, the way the toy is put together, the ingenuity of people devising the ratchets and other things. That’s good. The question is fine. The answer is a little unfortunate, because what they were trying to do is teach a definition of what is energy. But nothing whatever is learned.

Suppose a student would say, ‘I don’t think energy makes it move.’ Where does the discussion go from there?

I finally figured out a way to test whether you have taught an idea or you have only taught a definition. Test it this way: You say, ‘Without using the new word which you have just learned, try to rephrase what you have just learned in your own language. Without using the word “energy,” tell me what you know now about the dog’s motion.‘ You cannot. So you learned nothing about science. That may be all right. You may not want to learn something about science right away. You have to learn definitions. But for the very first lesson, is that not possibly destructive?

Feynman secara jelas mengatakan bahwa apabila kita tidak bisa mengungkapkan suatu istilah atau konsep dengan bahasa sendiri secara sederhana, maka berarti kita belum memahami istilah atau konsep tersebut. Jangan terpaku pada istilah.

Jadi bagaimana kita belajar dari Feynman ?

  1. Sewaktu kuliah di MIT, Feynman menyediakan satu buku catatan kosong yang diberi judul “Buku Catatan Hal yang Saya Tidak Pahami”. Dari buku catatan tersebut dia menggali hal yang belum dipahaminya sampai benar-benar paham. Feynman seperti benar-benar lapar untuk memahami apa yang tidak dipahaminya, menyusun dan merangkai hingga menjadi kerangka pengetahuan yang menjadi tidak mudah dilupakan. Cara Feynman ini dikenal sebagai The Feynman Notebook Method. Intinya uraikan sesuatu yang sulit dan gali lebih dalam sehingga terbentuk kerangka pemahaman yang kuat bagi kamu.
  2. Pilih konsep yang ingin kamu pahami.
  3. Cobalah menjelaskan konsep tersebut seakan-akan kamu mengajari temanmu yang sama sekali tidak paham mengenai konsep tersebut,
  4. Apabila kamu mengalami kesulitan menjelaskan konsep tersebut dengan bahasa yang sederhana, cari materi atau referensi, pelajari kembali sampai kamu bisa menjelaskan dengan bahasamu sendiri.

Mudah-mudahan artikel ini bermanfaat.

 

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Mudah Belajar Sains ala Feynman
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Mudah Belajar Sains ala Feynman
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Mudah Belajar Sains ? Tanya pada dirimu. Kayaknya nggak mudah ya untuk sebagian besar orang. Kepala serasa nggak muat lagi dimasukin berbagai rumus fisika,
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Dunia Sains
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